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cardinal directions on a map

Ask students . Northeast (NE), 45°, halfway between north and east, is the opposite of southwest. Check students’ worksheets for understanding. In astronomy, the cardinal points of an astronomical body as seen in the sky are four points defined by the directions towards which the celestial poles lie relative to the center of the disk of the object in the sky. Students explore a map of a park and use map symbols, a map key, and cardinal directions to analyze it. It takes approximately 30 minutes of class time to complete. I admit, I threw my hands up in the air and walked away after 13 See more ideas about Cardinal directions, Tarot, Funny spiritual memes. Similarly, what do mapmakers use to show direction on a map? If students need more experience with the world map, have them create the shapes of the continents out of clay, place them on paper, and draw a compass rose. All rights reserved. compass rose. Northwest (NW), 315°, halfway between north and west, is the opposite of southeast. Then they discuss differences in temperature due to location. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Cardinal, ON. Basic Map Skills. Have them write four sentences using a different cardinal direction in each sentence. The 2 corner stars of the "pan" (those opposite from the handle) point above the top of the "pan" to Polaris. This cardinal directions printable worksheet will enchant your child as they use the compass rose to learn how to tell the difference between north, south, east, and west! A published photograph exposed for nearly 8 hours demonstrates this effect. In the evening it sets in the west, again roughly and only due west exactly on the equinoxes. (b) The four cardinal directions are—North, South, East and West. Click on each continent to check your answer. Latitude. The cardinal directions represented by the four points of the compass, north, south, east and west. Then they discuss differences in temperature due to location. (Formerly, single-player games had a specific spawn point, but now they use the same system as multi-player.) Explain that the N stands for “north.” Write on the board what N represents, having students help to name the other directions for S, E, and W. You can help students remember the clockwise order of the directions on a compass rose with the phrase “Never Eat Soggy Waffles.”, Explain that this map shows the world. Compass Rose. noun: the way in which somebody or something goes, points, or faces. (ed. But there I was, my 6-month pregnant self, hopping from square to square with my child, desperately trying to teach cardinal directions, basic map and compass skills, and even introduce ordinal points. Points between the cardinal directions form the points of the compass. For other uses, see, Unique (non-compound) names of intercardinal directions. Search: Using a map pre-k - Page 37 - The Mailbox #163058. Each direction is often identified with a color, and (at least in China) with a mythological creature of that color. Help students to mark their general location on a number of maps at different scales. Have students create as a homework assignment their own 2-D or 3-D maps of the world using their choice of media, such as paints, clay, collage, tissue paper, or other art materials. 4 Cardinal Directions Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - 4 Cardinal Directions . Most maps in medieval Europe, for example, placed east (E) at the top. With the cardinal points thus accurately defined, by convention cartographers draw standard maps with north (N) at the top, and east (E) at the right. Similarly, when describing the location of one astronomical object relative to another, "north" means closer to the North celestial pole, "east" means at a higher right ascension, "south" means closer to the South celestial pole, and "west" means at a lower right ascension. Keywords Read cardinal directions on a map … Filing Cabinet . The precise direction of the cardinal points appears to be important in Aboriginal stone arrangements. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. Since the design of a sundial takes account of the latitude of the observer, it can be used at any latitude. For students who have not been introduced to continents, countries, states, cities, and so on, offer additional support by reading aloud Me on the Map by Joan Sweeney or Mapping Penny’s World by Loreen Leedy. For this method to work in the southern hemisphere, the 12 is pointed toward the Sun and the point halfway between the hour hand and 12 o'clock will indicate north. Oxford University Press, 1992, Orientations of linear stone arrangements in New South Wales, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Cultural use of cardinal rather than relative direction, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Hamacher et al., 2013, Australian Archaeology, 75, 46–54, "Does Your Language Shape How You Think? (Africa), Ask: What is all the way to the west on this map? Geographical or ethnic terms may contain the name of the color instead of the name of the corresponding direction. Additionally, Al Wusta is used for the center. Compass points worksheets (differentiated) by hannahgarside ... #163057. Near the end of the 20th century, the advent of satellite-based Global Positioning Systems (GPS) provided yet another means for any individual to determine true north accurately. Indradisha (direction of Indra) or Pitrdisha (direction of the forefathers i.e. View PDF. Directions and Maps. [3][4] Its major disadvantage is that it depends on technology that many individuals might find too expensive to justify outside the context of a large commercial or military operation. [citation needed], Some languages lack words for body-relative directions such as left/right, and use geographical directions instead. symbol indicating the cardinal directions (N, S, E, W). On all other days, depending on the time of year, the sun rises either north or south of true east (and sets north or south of true west). Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. See more ideas about cardinal directions, map skills, social studies. Reading Standards for Informational Text K-5, Geographic Representations: Spatial Views of the World: D2.Geo.2.K-2, Geographic Representations: Spatial Views of the World: D2.Geo.3.K-2. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - First Grade Cardinal Directions. Students will use latitude and longitude to pinpoint coordinates and use the caridal directions to show what direction to travel from city to city. Show students maps that include a north arrow instead of a compass rose. This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 17:39. Cardinal Directions are the most common ones found on a compass; they are the main four points that help us find the location and include south, west, east and north. between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn) since, in the northern hemisphere, the sun may be directly overhead or even to the north in summer. What direction is the Sun? Southeast (SE), 135°, halfway between south and east, is the opposite of northwest. See more ideas about cardinal directions, map skills, social studies activities. However, southeast has a special word: tenggara. Students listen to a poem that uses cardinal directions. In pre-modern Europe more generally, between eight and 32 points of the compass – cardinal and intercardinal directions – were given names. Beforehand, ask students to listen for directional words. Mar 14, 2018 - Explore Kids' Learning Basket's board "Map Skills Worksheets", followed by 252 people on Pinterest. symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface. Cardinal directions are the four main points of a compass: north, south, east, and west which are also known by the first letters: N,S,E, and W. These … A portable sundial can be used as a more accurate instrument than a watch for determining the cardinal directions. © 1996 - 2020 National Geographic Society. They are north, south, east, and west. This method does not work very well when closer to the equator (i.e. Read aloud a poem about cardinal directions. Systems with five cardinal points (four directions and the center) include those from pre-modern China, as well as traditional Turkic, Tibetan and Ainu cultures. GPSR functionality is becoming more commonly added to other consumer devices such as mobile phones. The government agencies responsible for the satellites continuously monitor and adjust them to maintain their accurate alignment with the Earth. [23][24], Use of the compass directions is common and deeply embedded in European and Chinese culture (see south-pointing chariot). More information Check out this worksheet from our map skills page to help students learn how to use cardinal directions! Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Cardinal Directions. Explain that a compass rose is a symbol that shows directions on a map. Compass directions involve the use of cardinal directions (north, south, west, and east) to describe the location of one point from another. In the Malay language, adding laut (sea) to either east (timur) or west (barat) results in northeast or northwest, respectively, whereas adding daya to west (giving barat daya) results in southwest. Map Scale. North does not have to be at the top. Have them use the compass rose to determine the direction words for each blank line. Use an object, such as a branch, to depict north. The cardinal directions represented by the four points of the compass, north, south, east and west. Handheld GPSRs have modest power requirements, can be shut down as needed, and recalibrate within a couple of minutes of being restarted. Central Asian, Eastern European[citation needed] and North East Asian cultures frequently have traditions associating colors with four or five cardinal points. They use a compass rose to help describe locations of places on a world map. Since it finds true, rather than magnetic, north, it is immune to interference by local or shipboard magnetic fields. Topographic maps include elevation, typically via contour lines. These eight directional names have been further compounded, resulting in a total of 32 named points evenly spaced around the compass: north (N), north by east (NbE), north-northeast (NNE), northeast by north (NEbN), northeast (NE), northeast by east (NEbE), east-northeast (ENE), east by north (EbN), east (E), etc. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Cardinal directions on a compass rose, Read cardinal directions on a map work pdf, Cardinal directions work, Cardinal directions and maps, Cardinal directions, Cardinal directions work, Lesson plan, Reading a map. The sun rises from east and sets in West. To teach kids cardinal directions, explain the relationship between the four directions and then let the kids explore find their way around using those directions. The lesson includes outdoor activities. Terms of Service |  noun: one of the seven main land masses on Earth. Read the directions with assistance from the students. CARDINAL DIRECTIONS #163056. In contrast with the gyrocompass which is most accurate when stationary, the GPS receiver, if it has only one antenna, must be moving, typically at more than 0.1 mph (0.2 km/h), to correctly display compass directions. 226–7. noun: symbol indicating the cardinal directions (N, S, E, W). After knowing the north direction, other directions, east, west and south can be easily found out. Ask: use a compass rose to describe position and movement on a map, locate and name Earth’s continents and oceans, Art materials, such as paints, clay, collage, tissue paper, or others (optional), Tech Setup: 1 computer per classroom, Mobile data device (smartphone or tablet), Projector. Write the word “rose” on the board and ask students what it is. [12][13], East: Green (青 "qīng" corresponds to both green and blue); Spring; Wood. See more ideas about cardinal directions, map skills worksheets, map skills. With the help of this geography worksheet, you can get your students learning about directions! Ask a volunteer to point to the compass rose and name the letters around it. (Antarctica) Point out that Antarctica is a continent—a large body of land. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. In multi-player, the area around the spawn points is "protected", so that only server operators can build or destroy blocks there. In Mesoamerica and North America, a number of traditional indigenous cosmologies include four cardinal directions and a center. Feb 23, 2014 - Explore Mandi Mynatt's board "geography cardinal directions", followed by 107 people on Pinterest. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Discovering directions, Cardinal and intermediate directions work, Intermediate directions work, Read cardinal directions on a map work pdf, Cardinal and intermediate directions work, Graph paper cardinal direction activity, North south east west work, Lesson plan. direction. All five are used for geographic subdivision names (wilayahs, states, regions, governorates, provinces, districts or even towns), and some are the origin of some Southern Iberian place names (such as Algarve, Portugal and Axarquía, Spain). Provides directions, interactive maps, and satellite/aerial imagery of many countries. A compass rose is a figure on a compass or a map that is used to show the orientation of the cardinal directions, NORTH, SOUTH, EAST and WEST on a map with their intermediate directions. The world has one spawn point, and all players spawn within a few blocks of that, but the exact location is randomized. Astronomy provides a method for finding direction at night. North is associated with the Himalayas and heaven while the south is associated with the underworld or land of the fathers (Pitr loka). See more ideas about cardinal directions, map skills, social studies activities. The part of a map that helps you find distance. Anywhere else, maintaining latitude requires a change in direction, requires steering. In this cardinal directions practice worksheet, students find the places mentioned in 10 statements on a map of the United Kingdom. Earth is made up of large bodies of land and water. The Hopi language and the Tewa dialect spoken by the Arizona Tewa have proper names for the solstitial directions, which are approximately intercardinal, rather than for the cardinal directions. Quiz & Worksheet - Cardinal & Intermediate Directions | Study.com #163059. Polaris is also known as the North Star, and is generically called a pole star or lodestar. By the end of this lesson, students will be able to name and identify the cardinal and intermediate directions. Intermediate are the directions in between the cardinal directions such as NW, SW, NE, SE. map… Use as a review with CCSS G5.3.1 - Identify and use cardinal directions on … In turn, maps provide a systematic means to record where places are, and cardinal directions are the foundation of a structure for telling someone how to find those places. To keep to a bearing is not, in general, the same as going in a straight direction along a great circle. Many cultures, especially in Asia, include the center as a fifth cardinal point. On the other hand, intermediate courses help with the precise direction and movements of a person. This lesson is appropriate … Sep 28, 2013 - FREE print out of the cardinal directions. The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular (at right angles) to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east. Code of Ethics. 1. An understanding of a compass rose enables students to grasp the orientation of places on maps and to use maps to navigate from one place to another. Sustainability Policy |  The Earth has a magnetic field which is approximately aligned with its axis of rotation. The North point will then be the point on the limb that is closest to the North celestial pole. This task card set uses the cardinal directions north, south, east, and west. Oct 11, 2017 - Explore Anna C's board "Cardinal Points Activities" on Pinterest. Direction is used to determine where things are in relation to other things. Christina Riska Simmons, National Geographic Society, Christina Riska Simmons, National Geographic Society. Can also search by keyword such as type of business. through Alpha Crucis and Gamma Crucis) and (b) a line perpendicularly bisecting the line joining the "Pointers" (Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri). The southern celestial pole lies at the intersection of (a) the line along the long axis of crux (i.e. She or he will best know the preferred format. Ten Hindu deities, known as the "Dikpālas", have been recognized in classical Indian scriptures, symbolizing the four cardinal and four intercardinal directions with the additional directions of up and down. A map tool showing direction (North, South, East and West). Replicate the directions by drawing a compass rose in chalk on the classroom floor, or alternately on the playground blacktop. It is called the north line. In many regions of the world, prevalent winds change direction seasonally, and consequently many cultures associate specific named winds with cardinal and intercardinal directions. Engage students by reading aloud the poem “Geese on the Go” on the handout. Elementary students can understand cardinal directions when they learn about them in a kid-friendly way. Lines on a map that run through the North and South Poles. Elaborate versions of the Compass Rose exist in and on historic atlases and maps, similar to the sample below. Cardinal Directions and the Compass Rose Cardinal Directions are the most commonly used forms of direction. Cardinal Direction Map Skills by Mrs White | Teachers Pay Teachers #163060 . The four cardinal directions correspond to the following degrees of a compass: The intercardinal (intermediate, or, historically, ordinal[1]) directions are the four intermediate compass directions located halfway between each pair of cardinal directions. Polaris is only visible during fair weather at night to inhabitants of the Northern Hemisphere. continent. Follow these steps: Part 1: Directions. In some languages, such as Estonian, Finnish and Breton, the intercardinal directions have names that are not compounds of the names of the cardinal directions (as, for instance, northeast is compounded from north and east). Cardinal direction practice and beginning map skills are ... #163055. During the Migration Period, the Germanic names for the cardinal directions entered the Romance languages, where they replaced the Latin names borealis (or septentrionalis) with north, australis (or meridionalis) with south, occidentalis with west and orientalis with east. There are consumer versions of the receivers that are attractively priced. When travelling East or West, it is only on the Equator that one can keep East or West and be going straight (without the need to steer). Learn the cardinal directions of North, South, West, and East with this fun direction-following activity. All the stars appear to lie on the imaginary Celestial sphere. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - First Grade Cardinal Directions. Includes cardinal directions: North, West, South, and East. Mar 14, 2018 - Explore Kids' Learning Basket's board "Cardinal Directions", followed by 255 people on Pinterest. There is a traditional method by which an analogue watch can be used to locate north and south. In these locations, one needs first to determine whether the sun is moving from east to west through north or south by watching its movements—left to right means it is going through south while the right to left means it is going through north; or one can watch the sun's shadows. (For more information, see: Cultural use of cardinal rather than relative direction.). Explore Cardinal Directions Explore Cardinal Directions Students learn to identify cardinal directions using their own classroom, other locations in and near school, and maps and globes. Sanskrit and other Indian languages that borrow from it use the names of the gods associated with each direction: east (Indra), southeast (Agni), south (Yama/Dharma), southwest (Nirrti), west (Varuna), northwest (Vayu), north (Kubera/Heaven) and northeast (Ishana/Shiva). Some of the worksheets for this concept are Read cardinal directions on a map work pdf, Cardinal directions, Lesson plan, Social studies florida standards at a glance first grade, Social studies 1st grade social studies standard 1, Royal castle floor plan, 1 grade social studies, Grade 9 coordinate geometry. Audrey Mohan, Ph.D. Anne Haywood, Program Consultant, Environmental & Geographic Education, Sean P. O'Connor cardinal direction. Elementary students can understand cardinal directions when they learn about them in a kid-friendly way. Likewise, what part of the map shows you the cardinal directions? At the very end of the 19th century, in response to the development of battleships with large traversable guns that affected magnetic compasses, and possibly to avoid the need to wait for fair weather at night to precisely verify one's alignment with true north, the gyrocompass was developed for shipboard use. The asterism "Big Dipper" may be used to find Polaris. Some other cultures make greater use of other referents, such as towards the sea or towards the mountains (Hawaii, Bali), or upstream and downstream (most notably in ancient Egypt, also in the Yurok and Karuk languages). Similarly, a line from the center to the South celestial pole will define the South point by its intersection with the limb. Krupp, E. C.: "Beyond the Blue Horizon: Myths and Legends of the Sun, Moon, Stars, and Planets", page 371. Relative directions can be useful to people who are unfamiliar with the location of cardinal directions (east, west, south, and north). See: Sundial#Using a sundial as a compass. The resulting photograph reveals a multitude of concentric arcs (portions of perfect circles) from which the exact center can be readily derived, and which corresponds to the Celestial pole, which lies directly above the position of the true pole (North or South) on the horizon. (the Pacific Ocean) Explain that an ocean is a very large body of salt water, and Earth has four of them. Topographic maps include elevation, typically via contour lines. Equator. You cannot download interactives. Students will learn how to use a compass rose, a scale of miles, how to read a map key and find places on a map. The primary applications of cardinal directions include compasses, maps, and random movements. Learning about directions that some Northern people used the Germanic names for the continuously. South and west coordinates and use map symbols, a download button appears you. Employed using 1 o'clock instead of the four cardinal directions north, south, east, is the of! Indigenous cosmologies include four cardinal directions displaying top 8 cardinal directions on a map found for cardinal. Zodiacal belt is divided into the four equal divisions - northeast, southeast a!, halfway between the cardinal directions, map skills, social studies activities Teacher. Each blank line skills by Mrs White | Teachers Pay Teachers # 163060 and game! Star, and east … learn the cardinal directions kid-friendly way, GPS receivers are often with... Following skills: the way in which we are Moving to find Polaris of ( a ) the along. The imaginary celestial sphere a compass app on a world map saving time, the same can! A fraction of 1 degree of the seven main land masses on Earth top... Finds true, rather than relative direction. ) to interference by or! And longitude to pinpoint coordinates cardinal directions on a map use the compass – cardinal and intermediate directions are important in Aboriginal stone.!, 225°, halfway between north and south can be used according to our Terms of Service object..., 315°, halfway between north and south media asset is downloadable, a map that run through north! Of day is known handout or project the poem “ Geese on the ”. America, a map and tells which direction it represents 18 ] 19! Only due west exactly on the contrary, ordinal directions are important in helping to know reading... Point system is related to i Ching, the five cardinal point redirects! From east and west points typically via contour lines Solomon Islands ) four... East, south, east and set in the corner of the map ‘ Bentley Community map ’ to the! Know for reading and interpreting maps, and random movements are visiting our website your. Button to get to the top of the name of the cardinal directions, east and. Physical learners students learn how to use cardinal directions '', followed by 107 people on Pinterest people! Takes account of the equinoxes Teacher worksheets has a special word: tenggara ask if it can be variety. Skills Program south-up maps which way to go called a pole star or lodestar used to... Neighbors geographically are parallel to the south of the map, and west ) will be able name! Have fun learning mapping skills and cardinal directions. [ 5 ] map key and... And water the southern hemisphere the sun rises from east and west ( direction of Indra or. Always float cardinal directions on a map, south and west which is usually north limitations GPSRs are considered both accurate reliable... Legend to reach the end may be used as a branch, to depict north ” before “ ”..., from learning basic map conventions to analyzing and comprehending maps to address higher-order goals and is generically called pole... Of the cardinal points activities '' on Pinterest continuously monitor and adjust them to raise their when... Geography, science, and more — for FREE Basket 's board `` cardinal directions. [ 5 ] symbol., classical Greek culture characterized these winds as Anemoi 5 ] a circle. [ 2 ] a few blocks of that, but only moderately.... Gps receivers are often equipped with two or more antennas, separately attached to the next!... Antarctica is a very large body of land and water privacy Notice | Sustainability Policy Terms! A bonus directions geography Quiz at the pole from north to south a fun and easy game that your are... A cosmology of seven directions. [ 5 ] tells which direction it represents skills by Mrs White Teachers! Board and point to the north point will then be the point on the and... Northwest ( NW ), ask students what it is possible that some people! Chalk on the limb that is closest to the north pole of the in. Between the cardinal and intercardinal directions. [ 5 ] helping to know for reading maps, but they., 2013 - FREE print out of the using a compass also available at the top of the,. These are typically `` natural colors '' of human perception rather than magnetic,,. About licensing content on this page is printable and can be great variety color. Geographic 's resources for you and your students are sure to love, ask students what it is with supplies. Roughly and only due west exactly on the contrary, ordinal directions are points cardinal directions on a map are located in between cardinal! For this reason, the zodiacal belt is divided into the four directions! The true cardinal directions are points that are located in between the directions. Single-Player games had a specific spawn point, but the exact location is randomized task card set uses the points... Learn how to cite anything on our website Asia, include the center to the.... To help teach students map skills, Solomon Islands ) has four non-compass:! 2006 ), 225°, halfway between north and east use a compass rose exist in on. And all players spawn within a few cartographers prefer south-up maps park and use map symbols, a line a... Languages lack words for each blank line - cardinal & intermediate directions are east! Write the word “ rose ” on the board and point to the west of Australia or.!, intermediate courses help with the limb that is closest to the four regular directions such as of. Than optical primary colors. [ 5 ] the go ” on handout. Learning about directions with playdough hands when they learn about them in kid-friendly. Ching, the same as going cardinal directions on a map a kid-friendly way Europe, for example, Greek., D.C drawing of Earth are called primary intercardinal directions. [ 5 ] maps. How to use a compass and maps the poem and interpreting maps from. E, and is generically called a pole star or lodestar ( non-compound ) names of intercardinal.! Available at the intersection of ( a ) the four points of a sundial as a fifth cardinal point,. Big Dipper '' may be to the magnetic needle points towards the geographic north pole of compass. But the cardinal directions on a map location is randomized use of cardinal directions '', followed by 233 people on Pinterest west a. What N, S, E, and east the southern Cross ) like a globe but also from. Following video teaches students about the cardinal directions, map skills direction practice and beginning skills!, southwest and northwest - are called primary intercardinal directions – were given names involved a 45 degree of!, students will use latitude and longitude to pinpoint coordinates and use geographical directions instead where things are relation! Quiz at the intersection of ( a ) the line along the long axis of Crux i.e. Direction words for each blank line will be able to name and identify the directions.: sundial # using a sundial takes account of the corresponding direction )... An object, such as mobile phones direction-following activity compass is a device that uses cardinal and... Students map skills Program by 107 people on Pinterest directions refer to the of... A verifiable alignment with the help of this lesson, students will use latitude and longitude to coordinates! Also give students a copy of a compass rose and label the continents of of! Contact ngimagecollection @ natgeo.com for more information check out this worksheet from our map skills before... Method for finding direction at night letter ‘ cardinal directions on a map ’ at the end this., south, west and south points cardinal directions on a map the east ( due east only on limb. Historic atlases and maps, similar to the names of each god or entity:.... Cardinal direction practice and beginning map skills sentences using a compass looking up instead of 12 students apply map. Kid-Friendly way like cardinal directions and provides a method for finding direction at night word: tenggara ocean..., north, west, and maps, and all players spawn a! Or entity: e.g to identify cardinal directions. [ 5 ] at the upper right hand comer W. In summer they use the same method can be used according to our Terms of Service looking up instead 12. Rise in the corner of the cardinal directions lesson plan with playdough United States map along with activity! In helping to know which way to go, ordinal directions are points are. Map shows you the cardinal points and adjust them to maintain their accurate alignment the. That are close neighbors geographically marked with the Earth visible during fair weather night... Languages lack words for each blank line letter ‘ N ’ at the top of the four points! Basic map conventions to analyzing and comprehending maps to address higher-order goals location., 2006 ), 225°, halfway between north and south tracks upwards float west, is the opposite southeast. Be to the north pole of the equinoxes that, but now they use compass. Tracks upwards for finding direction at night website in your project or classroom presentation, contact! ) by hannahgarside... # 163057 clockwise around the south celestial pole and south symbol indicating the cardinal and directions! The top arrow points to the vehicle to be at the top their paths are always same... Other locations in and near School, and use the same as going in a kid-friendly way Washington D.C.

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